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3 edition of Glacier mass-balance measurements found in the catalog.

Glacier mass-balance measurements

Gunnar Østrem

Glacier mass-balance measurements

a manual for field and office work

by Gunnar Østrem

  • 377 Want to read
  • 31 Currently reading

Published by Ministry of Supply and Services Canada in Ottawa .
Written in English


Edition Notes

At foot of title-page: Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration. Environment Canada.

Statementby G. Østrem and M. Brugman.
SeriesNHRI science report -- no.4
ContributionsBrugman, M., Canada. Department of the Environment., Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration., National Hydrological Research Institute (Canada)
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL15100913M
ISBN 100662190009
OCLC/WorldCa27079580

Taku Glacier annually since The collected observa-tions of surface mass balance, glacier velocity and glacier thickness at Profile IV 29km above the terminus and 4km above the equilibrium line provide a means to assess the equi-librium nature of the Taku Glacier. Annual velocity mea-sured and summer velocity measurements completed at a. Energy and mass balance of Zhadang glacier surface, central Tibetan Plateau Guoshuai ZHANG,1 Shichang KANG,1,2* Koji FUJITA,3 Eva HUINTJES,4 Jianqing XU,5 Takeshi YAMAZAKI,6 Shigenori HAGINOYA,7 Yang WEI,1 Dieter SCHERER,8 Christoph SCHNEIDER,4 Tandong YAO1,2 1Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environmental Changes and Land Surface Processes, Chinese Academyof .


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Glacier mass-balance measurements by Gunnar Østrem Download PDF EPUB FB2

The glacier mass balance provides information about the amount of water stored or released by a glacier within a given time period (Cogley et al., ).The glacier mass budget is characteristically evaluated over one hydrological year (October 1–September 30) and is reported as water equivalent per unit area per year (m a −1).Mass balance b (m a −1) at one point on the glacier surface.

Iceland Glacier mass balance. Glacier mass balance is measured once or twice annually on numerous stakes on the several ice caps in Iceland by the National Energy Authority. Regular pit and stake mass-balance measurements have been carried out on the northern side of Hofsjökull since and likewise on the Þrándarjökull since The mass balance of a glacier is a concept critical to all theories of glacier flow and behaviour.

It is simple enough, really: mass balance is simply the gain and loss of ice from the glacier system 1.A glacier is the product of how much mass it receives and how much it loses by melting.

Get this from a library. Glacier mass-balance measurements. A manual for field and office work. [Gunnar Østrem; Alan Stanley; Canada. Department of Energy, Mines and Resources. Glaciology Subdivision.; Norges vassdrags- og elektrisitetsvesen. Glaciology Section.].

Glacier Mass-balance Measurements: A Manual for Field and Office Work Volume 66 of Canada Inland Waters Branch Reprint: Authors: Gunnar Østrem, Alan Stanley: Contributors: Canada.

Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources. Glaciology Subdivision, Norway. Vassdrags-og elektrisitets vesenet. Glaciology Section: Edition: 2, revised: Publisher.

Glacier Mass Balance and Regime Measurements and Analysis,Version 1 This data set consists of glacier regime parameters observed between and Data include annual mass balances, ablation, accumulation, and equilibrium-line altitude of mountain and subpolar glaciers outside the two major ice sheets.

Get this from a library. Glacier mass-balance measurements: a manual for field and office work. [Gunnar Østrem; Melinda M Brugman; National Hydrology Research Institute (Canada); Norges vassdrags- og energiverk.] -- Handbook of field methods for recording variations in glacier mass-balance studies, for use in Canada and Norway, including 'cold' or 'subpolar' glaciers.

Glacier mass balance and regime: Data of measurements and analysis (Occasional paper / Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado) [Dyurgerov, Mark] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

Glacier mass balance and regime: Data of measurements and analysis (Occasional paper / Institute of Arctic and Alpine ResearchAuthor: Mark Dyurgerov. Exercises: Glacier mass balance 1.) STAKE MASS-BALANCE MEASUREMENTS Figure 1 illustrates how the specific mass balance is computed from ablation stakes drilled into the ice/firn of a glacier.

In the accumulation area snow remains at the end of the summer, hence, all melt is due to Size: KB. Geodetic mass balance measurements over – indicated − ± m w.e.

(−1 m w.e. yr−1) whereas glaciological mass balance measurements show − ± m w.e. (− m w.e. Among the most dramatic evidence that Earth's climate is warming is the dwindling and disappearance of mountain glaciers around the world.

Based on preliminary data, is likely to be the 30 th year in a row of mass loss of mountain glaciers worldwide. According to the State of the Climate inThe cumulative mass balance from to is − m, the equivalent of cutting a m.

To calculate net mass balance, scientists measure the glacier surface elevation at numerous locations across the glacier at and again at the end of the summer season. These measurements allow them to calculate the mass gained during the winter (b. w, the winter balance), the mass lost during the summer (b Glacial Geology 4.

Glacial Mass. Buy Assessment of Glacier Mass Balances from Small Tropical Glaciers to the Ice Sheet of Greenland on FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders. Glacier mass-balance and length variation in Norway Article (PDF Available) in Annals of Glaciology 42(1) August with Reads How we measure 'reads'.

Wendell Tangborn (born ) is an American glaciologist specializing in glacier mass balance measurements sincechiefly within the states of Washington and Alaska of the Pacific Northwest. His streamflow forecasting model implements a split-sample calibration approach which greatly improves its accuracy, and eliminates the need for manual measurements such as snow surveys.

Glacier Mass Balance 1. Introduction: Definitions and processes Definition: Mass balance is the change in the mass of a glacier or ice body, or part thereof, over a stated span of time:. "M=M. t 1 t #dt The term mass budget is a synonym. The span of time is often a year or a season. A seasonalFile Size: 1MB.

On Thin Ice: Expedition to a Crumbling Ice Shelf. Scientists blog from Antarctica and provide a glimpse of what it's like to do research in the field. To date, systematic field-based, mass balance measurements have only been carried out between and on one glacier located near the SPI (Glaciar de Los Tres, 49°20′S, 73°00′W, area km 2, length km; (Popovnin et al., )).Cited by: Terminology and components of glacier mass balance A common language and terminology is a basic requirement for developing any best practice.

In this work, the terminol-ogy (in English), formulations, and units of measurement follow the “Glossary of Glacier Mass Balance and Related Terms” of Cogley et al. “Homogenization Cited by: area where glacier mass-balance measurements were carried out inbased on the seNorge grid altitudes.

Fig. Number and corresponding area of glaciers where mass-balance measurements were carried out between and Data source: NVE. Engelhardt and others: Glacier mass balance of.

Direct field measurements are combined with weather data and imagery analyses to estimate the seasonal and annual mass balance at each glacier in both a conventional and reference surface format (Cogley and others, ). The analysis framework (O'Neel, ; van Beusekom and others, ) is identical at each glacier to enable cross-comparison.

In the glaciological method, a network of stakes and pits are placed on the glacier surface and used to measure the change in surface level while taking into account snow/firn/ice density.

Comparing measurements between two fixed dates yields an annual mass balance, while comparing measurements at. Glacier mass balance data are calculated based on a variety of measurements at the surface of a glacier, including measurements of snow depths and snow density. The net balance is the average mass balance of the glacier from data collected over a glaciological year, the time between the end of the summer ablation season from one year to the next.

international Glossary on mass balance terminology (Cogley et al. The methods of mass balance measurements have to a large extent been developed on Storglaciären over the years and Tarfala has also hosted the earlier workshop mentioned above on mass balance measurements in. Temperature reconstructions based on glacier length and mass balance records are limited in their temporal and spatial resolution.

They do not provide a year-to-year view of temperature change, but only averages over several years to decades (depending on the resolution of the length measurements and on the accuracy of assumptions in the physics).

HOW MANY STAKES ARE REQUIRED TO MEASURE THE MASS BALANCE OF A GLACIER. Geografiska Annaler 81 A () 4 edge and incorporate the dominant effect of alti-tude on mass balance. We also differ from Cogley (), who examines the correlation between measurements and their altitude difference and their effective area of representation.

Glacier Mass Balance. In Perú, mass-balance measurements were begun in the Cordillera Blanca in by this author on the Pucahirca Glacier. Following that, mass-balance measurements were made between and by the glaciology department of Electroperú on three glaciers chosen for easy access: the Uruashraju, Yanamarey, and Santa Rosa (Dolores and others, ).

Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass balance quantities for balance years and Mass balances were computed with assistance from a new model that was based on. Glacier mass balance measurements help to provide an understanding of the behavior of glaciers and their response to local and regional climate.

In the United States Geological Survey established a surface mass balance monitoring program on Sperry Glacier, Montana, USA. This project is the first quantitative study of mass changes of a glacier in the US northern Rocky Mountains and Cited by: 3.

If mass balance measurements are available, a relationship between ELA and mass balance can be established, and the mass balance measurements can be terminated. However, the glacier cannot change geometry (area-altitude) signifi cantly; otherwise. The “ideal” glacier for mass balance investigation – benchmark glacier 27 5.

The design of a glacier mass balance network (GMN) 29 III. CARRYING OUT MASS BALANCE MEASUREMENTS 34 6. Ablation measurements 34 Ablation stakes 34 Selecting sites 36 Drilling ablation stakes 38 The reading of ablation stakes 39 describe the response of glaciers to changes in mass balance; calculate glacial mass balance and classify glaciers based on their mass balance; and, explain the impact of mass balance gradient on glacier flow rates.

Readings. Bennett & Glasser () Chapter 3, pp. and pp. Davies, B. () An introduction to glacier mass balance. Decrease in Glacier Mass Balance uses measurements from of the average mass balance for a group of North Cascade, WA glaciers. Mass balance is the annual budget for the glaciers: total snow accumulation minus total snow ablation.

Not only are mass balances consistently negative, they are also continually decreasing. At Lewis Glacier it is conventional to measure the annual mass change from March to March, as March is often the minimum size of the glacier within a given year.

the annual mass balance ofrefers to the mass change between March and March Since the late s, USGS has maintained a long-term glacier mass-balance program at three North American glaciers. Similar measurements began at Sperry Glacier, MT in Direct field measurements are combined with weather data and imagery analyses to estimate the seasonal and annual mass balance at each glacier in both a conventional and reference surface format (Cogley and.

Østrem G, Brugman M () Glacier mass-balance measurements: a manual for field and office work, NHRI science report, pp Google Scholar Pelto MS () The annual balance of North Cascade, Washington glaciers measured and predicted using an activity index : Mauri Pelto.

ABSTRACT. We estimate the glacier mass balance of a km2 mountain glacier using three approaches for balance yearsand The photogrammetric, GPS and glaciological methods yielded sampling densities of5 and 2 pointskm–2, with measurement precisions of.

Van Beusekom, A.E.,Re-analysis of Alaskan benchmark glacier mass-balance data using the index method: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report –, 16 p. iiiFile Size: 1MB.

Thus, mass balance measurements track the most direct and immediate response of a glacier to changes in the meteorological environment. Mass balance was measured on Andrews Glacier from These measurements and photographs of the glacier show that in many years the entire glacier has a net of accumulation of snow and in other years.

The mass balance of the Gangotri glacier is estimated during the time period – using two different methods: ice-flow velocity; and energy balance modelling using regional model (REMO) outputs and in situ automatic weather station (AWS) data. The geodetic method is used for the nearby Dokriani glacier, where field-based MB measurements.

Cumulative glacier mass changes in Europe from for glaciers with long-term records in nine different regions. Cumulative mass balance values are given in. Sholes Glacier on August 7, and Sept. 15the glacier had lost 80% of its snowcover at this point an indicator of poor mass balance Landsat 8 images of Sholes Glacier inwith red line indicating snow line.

Measuring Accumulation on a. The mass balance of a glacier is the sum of all processes that add mass to a glacier and remove mass from it. Accumulation or addition of mass most commonly takes place in the form of snowfall, often modified by wind and avalanches.